The datasets provided here include site-level GPP model results from the P-model (Wang et al., 2017); and Model outputs from global simulations with the P-model (Wang et al., 2017) as implemented for the study by Stocker et al. (2019). This data may be used to partly reproduce results presented in Stocker et al. (2019) Nature Geosci. "Partly" because we used data for our analysis that was not open access but was confidentially shared with us. This includes remote sensing-based GPP estimates from the BESS and VPM models. Other open access data that was used for the analysis may not be distributed under this DOI. This includes FLUXNET 2015 data and MODIS data.